Chapter 1
Geriatrics: Section I - Body Organization

I. Cell Structure

-this includes all cell workings

II. Body Organization

1) Cellular Level:

+ cell: basic structural component of life

2) Tissue Level:

+ tissue: similar cells that perform specific functions

3) Organ Level:

+ organ: 2 or more kinds of tissues integrated to perform specific functions

4) System Level:

+ system: organs having related functions


A. Anatomical Position:

B. Planes of Reference:

1) Midsagittal Plane: divides the body into right and left halves
2) Coronal (or Frontal) Plane: divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
3) Transverse Plane: divides body into superior and inferior portions


1) Head or Cephalic Region (caput)

a) Facial Region includes:

i) Orbital - eye
ii) Nasal - nose
iii) Buccal - cheek
iv) Oral - mouth
v) Mental - chin

b) Cranial Region - braincase

2) Neck or Cervical Region (neck=cervix)

3) Thorax or Thoracic Region (chest)

a) Mammary Region - breast
b) Sternal Region - between the breasts
c) Axillary Region - armpit

4) Abdominopelvic Region

a) Abdominal Region - runs from the diaphragm to top of the hips
b) Pelvic Region - between the hip bones

i) Pubic Region - area covered w/pubic hair
ii) Perineum - between the legs; contains external sex organs
iii) Gluteal Region - buttocks

5) Upper Extremity

a) Deltoid Region - omos or shoulder
b) Brachium Region - arm - from shoulder to elbow
c) Cubital Region - elbow region
d) Antebrachium Region - forearm -between elbow and hand
e) Carpal Region - "wrist"
f) Hand

1) Palmar
2) Dorsum - back of hand

6) Lower Extremity

a) Femoral Region - thigh - from hip to knee
b) Patellar Region - front of knee
c) Popliteal Region - back of knee
d) Crural Region - leg- from knee to ankle
e) Foot

1) Plantar - sole
2) Dorsum - top surface


1) Posterior Cavity

a) Cranial Cavity (endocranium) - brain
b) Vertebral Cavity - spinal cord

2) Anterior Cavity

a) Thoracic Cavity (chest cavity)

1) Pericardial - contains heart
2) 2 Pleural - each encases a lung
3) Mediastinum - between lungs and above heart

b) Abdominopelvic Cavity

1) Abdominal Cavity - organs for digestion
2) Pelvic Cavity - reproductive organs


-- Definition - a tissue that will cover/protect organs or line body cavities

1) Mucous Membranes - secrete mucus

* line cavities or tubes that enter/exit the body
* ex: nasal cavity

2) Serous Membranes - secrete serous fluid

a) Parietal - line body walls

* ex: parietal pleura
* ex: parietal peritoneum

b) Visceral - line the organs themselves

* ex: visceral pleura
* ex: visceral peritoneum


Go To Chapter 1, Section II

Return to Table of Contents