TIS                         
Chapter 9
Reflexes

This chapter is devoted to the reflexes observed in infants and children that therapy interventions may be directed toward integration of at the appropriate stages. Reflexes may be one factor that is investigated by therapists in infants and children referred for treatment interventions.

THE ROOTING REACTION THE SUCK SWALLOW REFLEX MORO THE TRACTION RESPONSE CROSSED EXTENTION FLEXOR WITHDRAWAL PLANTAR GRASP GALANTíS RESPONSE NECK RIGHTING ON THE BODY (NOB) BODY RIGHTING REACTION (BOB) NEONATAL POSITIVE SUPPORTING IN THE LOWER EXTREMITIES PROPIOCEPTIVE PLACE OF LOWER EXTREMITY SPONTANEOUS STEPPING PALMAR GRASP UPPER EXTREMITY PROPRIOCEPTIVE PLACING ASSYMETRICAL TONIC NECK REFLEX (ATNR) TONIC LABYRINTHINE REFLEX (TLR) ASSOCIATED REACTIONS LABYRINTHINE HEAD RIGHTING OPTICAL RIGHTING BODY RIGHTING REACTION ON THE HEAD (BOH) LANDAU UPPER EXTREMITY POSITIVE SUPPORT UPPER EXTREMITY VISUAL PLACING LOWER EXTEMITY VISUAL PLACING PROTECTIVE EXTENSION DOWNWARD POSTURAL FIXATION IN PRONE TILTING REACTION IN PRONE PROTECTIVE EXTENSION FORWAD SYMMETRICAL TONIC NECK REFLEX (STNR) POSITIVE SUPPORT WEIGHT BEARING ON LOWER EXTREMITIES MATURE NECK RIGHTING ACTING ON THE BODY (NOB) MATURE BODY RIGHTING REACTION ACTING ON THE BODY (BOB) PROTECTIVE EXTENSION SIDEWARD OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY POSTURAL FIXATION IN SUPINE POSTURAL FIXATION IN SITTING TILTING REACTION IN SUPINE POSTURAL FIXATION IN QUADRAPED PROTECTIVE EXTENSION BACKWARD PROTECTIVE STAGGERING OF LOWER EXTREMITIES POSTURAL FIXATION IN STANDING TILTING REACTION IN STANDING This chapter presented many of the reflexes seen at birth through life. It is meant as a highlight of the most common types the therapist should be aware of and test for when presented with an infant or child with possible developmental delay or tonal problems. Reflex testing can assist the therapist in determining the cause of the delay such as CNS impairment, peripheral nerve injury, and muscle weakness. Reflex review will also assist in developing an individual treatment intervention designed to help the child integrate reflexes that appear to be delayed or missing.



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